Title Human Cytomegalovirus Inhibition of Interferon Signal Transduction
Author Daniel M. Miller 1 , Colleen M. Cebulla, and Daniel D. Sedmak *
Address The Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 38(4),203-208, 2000,
Key Words human cytomegalovirus, interferon signal transduction
Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a beta-herpesvirus with worldwide distribution, exhibits host persistence, a distinguishing characteristic of all herpesviruses. This persistence is dependent upon restricted gene expression in infected cells as well as the ability of productively infected cells to escape from normal cell-mediated anti-viral immunosurveillance. Type I (IFN-[alpha]/[beta]) and type II (IFN-[gamma]) interferons are major components of the innate defense system against viral infection. They are potent inducers of MHC class I and II antigens and of antigen processing proteins. Additionally, IFNs mediate direct anti-viral effects through induction of effector molecules that block viral infection and replication, such as 2', 5-oligoadenylate synthetase (2, 5-OAS). IFNs function through activation of well-defined signal transduction pathways that involve phosphorylation of constituent proteins and ultimate formation of active transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that a number of diverse viruses, including CMV, EBV, HPV, mumps and Ebola, are capable of inhibiting IFN-mediated signal transduction through a variety of mechanisms. As an example, CMV infection inhibits the ability of infected cells to transcribe HLA class I and II antigens as well as the antiviral effector molecules 2, 5-OAS and MxA I. EMSA studies have shown that IFN-[alpha] and IFN-[gamma] are unable to induce complete signal transduction in the presence of CMV infection, phenomena that are associated with specific decreases in JAK1 and p48. Viral inhibition of IFN signal transduction represents a new mechanistic paradigm for increased viral survival, a paradigm predicting widespread consequences in the case of signal transduction factors common to multiple cytokine pathways.
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