Title Endophytic Fungal Pre-treatments of Seeds Alleviates Salinity Stress ffects in Soybean Plants
Author Ramalingam Radhakrishnan1, Abdul Latif Khan1,2, and In-Jung Lee1*
Address 1School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 51(6),850–857, 2013,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-013-3168-8
Key Words antioxidants, endophytic fungi, phytohormones, soybean
Abstract In the present study, four endophytic fungi (GM-1, GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4) were tested for their ability to improve soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions. The seed germination and plant growth were higher in seeds pretreated with endophytic fungal cultures than their controls. The positive influence of fungi on plant growth was supported by gibberellins analysis of culture filtrate (CF), which showed wide diversity and various concentrations of GAs. Specifically, GA4, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, and GA20 were found in fungal CFs. Under salinity stress conditions, GM-1 significantly enhanced the length and fresh weight of soybean plants relative to other fungal treatments. GM-1 effectively mitigated the adverse effects of salinity by limiting lipid peroxidation and accumulating protein content. GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4 also counteracted the salinity induced oxidative stress in soybean plants through reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of protein content, maintaining the length and fresh weight of shoots. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were inhibited in salinity exposed plants, while GM-1 significantly enhanced these antioxidant enzyme activities in plants under salt stress. GM-1 treatment also showed lower levels of abscisic acid and elevated levels of salicylic acid in plants under salinity stress. Hence, GM-1 was identified as Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) isolate RK01 based on its DNA sequence homology. These results suggest that endophytic fungal (F. verticillioides) pre-treatment of soybean seeds would be an effective method to promote soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions.