Title Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components
Author Prasanna Weeratunga1, Md Bashir Uddin1,2, Myun Soo Kim3, Byeong-Hoon Lee1, Tae-Hwan Kim1, Ji-Eun Yoon4, Jin Yeul Ma5, Hongik Kim3, and Jong-Soo Lee1*
Address 1College of Veterinary Medicine (BK21 Plus Program), Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea, 2Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh, 3Vitabio Corporation, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea, 4Foot and Mouth Disease Division, Animal Quarantine and Inspection Agency, Anyang, Republic of Korea, 5Korean Medicine (KM) Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 54(1),57-70, 2016,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-016-5555-4
Key Words Angelica tenuissima Nakai, ferulic acid, herbal medicine, anti-influenza effect, antiviral effect
Abstract Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents.