Title Soil pH and electrical conductivity are key edaphic factors shaping bacterial communities of greenhouse soils in Korea
Author Jeong Myeong Kim1, An-Sung Roh2, Seung-Chul Choi3, Eun-Jeong Kim4, Moon-Tae Choi5, Byung-Koo Ahn6, Sun-Kuk Kim7, Young-Han Lee8, Jae-Ho Joa9, Seong-Soo Kang10, Shin Ae Lee1, Jae-Hyung Ahn1, Jaekyeong Song1, and Hang-Yeon Weon1*
Address 1National Institutes of Agricultural Sciences (NIAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea, 2Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service (ARES), Hwaseong 18388, Republic of Korea , 3Gangwon-do ARES, Chuncheon 24226, Republic of Korea, 4Chungcheongbuk-do ARES, Cheongju 28130, Republic of Korea, 5Chungcheongnam-do ARES, Yesan 32418, Republic of Korea, 6Jeollabuk-do ARES, Iksan 54591, Republic of Korea, 7Jeollanam-do ARES, Naju 58213, Republic of Korea, 8Gyeongsangnam-do ARES, Jinju 52733, Republic of Korea, 9Research Institute of Climate Change and Agriculture, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Jeju 63240, Republic of Korea, 10Soil & Fertilization Division, NIAS, RDA, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 54(12),838-845, 2016,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-016-6526-5
Key Words greenhouse, soil, bacterial community, pH, electrical conductivity
Abstract Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 11,865 operational taxonomic units at a 97% similarity cutoff level were detected from 847,560 sequences. Among nine soil factors evaluated; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), available P2O5, organic matter, and NO3-N, soil pH was most strongly correlated with bacterial richness (polynomial regression, pH: R2 = 0.1683, P < 0.001) and diversity (pH: R2 = 0.1765, P < 0.001). Community dissimilarities (Bray-Curtis distance) were positively correlated with Euclidean distance for pH and EC (Mantel test, pH: r = 0.2672, P < 0.001; EC: r = 0.1473, P < 0.001). Among dominant phyla (> 1%), the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were also more strongly correlated with pH and EC values, compared with other soil cation contents, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+. Our results suggest that, despite the heterogeneity of various environmental variables, the bacterial communities of the intensively cultivated greenhouse soils were particularly influenced by soil pH and EC. These findings therefore shed light on the soil microbial ecology of greenhouse cultivation, which should be helpful for devising effective management strategies to enhance soil microbial diversity and improving crop productivity.