Title [MINIREVIEW]Regulation of gene expression by protein lysine acetylation in Salmonella
Author Hyojeong Koo1†, Shinae Park1†, Min-Kyu Kwak2*, and Jung-Shin Lee1*
Address 1Department of Molecular Bioscience, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Industry, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Republic of Korea
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 58(12),979–987, 2020,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-020-0483-8
Key Words Salmonella, protein lysine acetylation, pathogenicity, nucleoid-associated protein, histone-like protein
Abstract Protein lysine acetylation influences many physiological functions, such as gene regulation, metabolism, and disease in eukaryotes. Although little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in bacteria, several reports have proposed its importance in various cellular processes. Here, we discussed the function of the protein lysine acetylation and the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone-like proteins in bacteria focusing on Salmonella pathogenicity. The protein lysine residue in Salmonella is acetylated by the Pat-mediated enzymatic pathway or by the acetyl phosphate-mediated non-enzymatic pathway. In Salmonella, the acetylation of lysine 102 and lysine 201 on PhoP inhibits its protein activity and DNAbinding, respectively. Lysine acetylation of the transcriptional regulator, HilD, also inhibits pathogenic gene expression. Moreover, it has been reported that the protein acetylation patterns significantly differ in the drug-resistant and -sensitive Salmonella strains. In addition, nucleoid-associated proteins such as histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) are critical for the gene silencing in bacteria, and PTMs in H-NS also affect the gene expression. In this review, we suggest that protein lysine acetylation and the post-translational modifications of H-NS are important factors in understanding the regulation of gene expression responsible for pathogenicity in Salmonella.