Title Comparative study of the geographical spread of genogroup II porcine norovirus and human norovirus
Author Eung Seo Koo and Yong Seok Jeong*
Address Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 59(7),644–650, 2021,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-021-1218-1
Key Words norovirus, porcine, livestock, geographic isolation, environmental water, phylogeography
Abstract Livestock pigs and porcine norovirus could be candidate tools for future studies on the geographic isolation of norovirus. In this study, we provide the first evidence for geographic isolation of the host as a determinant of the distribution of subgenotypes of the porcine norovirus genogroup II (GII) genotype 11. Environmental water samples were collected from peri-urban streams and estuaries in South Korea between 2014 and 2020. In total, 488 GII region C sequences of norovirus open reading frame 2 were isolated. A total of 14 genotypes were detected, two of which (GII.11 and GII.18) corresponded to porcine norovirus. Five human norovirus genotypes (GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17) and one porcine norovirus genotype (GII.11) comprised the subgenotypes. Integrated analysis of seasonal and geographical factors revealed that the possibility of the co-emergence of different GII.11 subgenotypes in the same province was lower than that of human norovirus subgenotypes in the same province. Additional algorithms designed to eliminate potential biases further supported the estimated restricted geographical spread of the GII.11 subgenotypes. Fecal contamination source tracking revealed low detection rates of porcine norovirus in the absence of upstream pig farms. These results suggest that a one-sided viral transmission route, mainly dependent on indirect contact owing to the limited chance of direct contact between geographically separated livestock pig populations, may be responsible for the restricted geographical spread of the GII.11 subgenotypes.