Title Cultured Bacterial Diversity and Human Impact on Alpine Glacier Cryoconite
Author Yung Mi Lee1, So-Yeon Kim2, Jia Jung2, Eun Hye Kim1, Kyeung Hee Cho1, Franz Schinner3, Rosa Margesin3, Soon Gyu Hong1, and Hong Kum Lee1*
Address 1Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea, 2Korean Minjok Leadership Academy, Gangwon-do 225-823, Republic of Korea, 3Institute of Microbiology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 49(3),355-362, 2011,
Key Words bacterial diversity, cryoconite, human impact
Abstract The anthropogenic effect on the microbial communities in alpine glacier cryoconites was investigated by cultivation and physiological characterization of bacteria from six cryoconite samples taken at sites with different amounts of human impact. Two hundred and forty seven bacterial isolates were included in Actinobacteria (9%, particularly Arthrobacter), Bacteroidetes (14%, particularly Olleya), Firmicutes (0.8%), Alphaproteobacteria (2%), Betaproteobacteria (16%, particularly Janthinobacterium), and Gammaproteobacteria (59%, particularly Pseudomonas). Among them, isolates of Arthrobacter were detected only in samples from sites with no human impact, while isolates affiliated with Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in samples from sites with strong human impact. Bacterial isolates included in Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were frequently isolated from pristine sites and showed low maximum growth temperature and enzyme secretion. Bacterial isolates included in Gammaproteobacteria were more frequently isolated from sites with stronger human impact and showed high maximum growth temperature and enzyme secretion. Ecotypic differences were not evident among isolates of Janthinobacterium lividum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas veronii, which were frequently isolated from sites with different degrees of anthropogenic effect.