Selection of a Streptomyces Strain Able to Produce Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes and Active against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Adriana Fróes*, Andrew Macrae, Juliana Rosa, Marcella Franco, Rodrigo Souza, Rosângela Soares, and Rosalie Coelho*
Departamento de Microbiologia Geral, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo de Góes, CCS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Journal of Microbiology, 50(5),798-806, 2012,
biological control, chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, peptidase, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Streptomyces sp.
Control of plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an ongoing challenge because of its wide host range and the persistence of its sclerotia in soil. Fungicides are the most commonly used method to control this fungus but these can have ecotoxicity impacts. Chitinolytic Streptomyces strains isolated from Brazilian tropical soils were capable of inhibiting S. sclerotiorum growth in vitro, offering new possibilities for integrated pest management and biocontrol, with a new approach to dealing with an old problem. Strain Streptomyces sp. 80 was capable of irreversibly inhibiting fungal growth. Compared to other strains, its crude enzymes had the highest chitinolytic levels when measured at 25°C and strongly inhibited sclerotia from S. sclerotiorum. It produced four hydrolytic enzymes involved in fungal cell wall degradation when cultured in presence of the fungal mycelium. The best production, obtained after three days, was 0.75 U/ml for exochitinase, 0.9 U/ml for endochitinase, 0.16 U/ml for glucanase, and 1.78 U/ml for peptidase. Zymogram analysis confirmed two hydrolytic bands of chitinolytic activity with apparent molecular masses of 45.8 and 206.8 kDa. One glucanase activity with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kDa was also recorded, as well as seven bands of peptidase activity with apparent molecular masses ranging from 15.5 to 108.4 kDa. Differential interference contrast microscopy also showed alterations of hyphal morphology after co-culture. Streptomyces sp. 80 seems to be promising as a biocontrol agent against S. sclerotiorum, contributing to the development of new methods for controlling plant diseases and reducing the negative impact of using fungicides.