Characterization of the Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in Rice Field Soils Subjected to Long-Term Fertilization Practices
Jae-Hyung Ahn1, Jaekyeong Song1, Byung-Yong Kim1, Myung-Sook Kim2, Jae-Ho Joa3, and Hang-Yeon Weon1*
1Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea, 2Soil & Fertilization Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea, 3Agricultural Research Center for Climate Change, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeju 690-150, Republic of Korea
Journal of Microbiology, 50(5),754-765, 2012,
rice field, bacteria, archaea, community, long-term fertilization, pyrosequencing
The bacterial and archaeal communities in rice field soils subjected to different fertilization regimes for 57 years were investigated in two different seasons, a non-planted, drained season (April) and a rice-growing, flooded season (August), by performing soil dehydrogenase assay, real-time PCR assay and pyrosequencing analysis. All fertilization regimes increased the soil dehydrogenase activity while the abundances of bacteria and archaea increased in the plots receiving inorganic fertilizers plus compost and not in those receiving inorganic fertilizers only. Rice-growing and flooding decreased the soil dehydrogenase activity while they increased the bacterial diversity in rice field soils. The bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and the archaeal communities by Crenarchaeota at the phylum level. In principal coordinates analysis based on the weighted Fast UniFrac metric, the bacterial and archaeal communities were separated primarily by season, and generally distributed along with soil pH, the variation of which had been caused by long-term fertilization. Variations in the relative abundance according to the season or soil pH were observed for many bacterial and archaeal groups. In conclusion, the microbial activity, prokaryotic abundance and diversity, and prokaryotic community structure in the rice field soils were changed by season and long-term fertilization.