Title REVIEW] Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Evaluation From Clinical, Immunological and Bacterial Pathogenesis Perspectives
Author Daniel J. Hassett1,2*, Michael T. Borchers2,3, and Ralph J. Panos2
Address 1Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA, 2Department of Veterans Affairs, Cincinnati VA Hospital, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA, 3Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 52(3),211-226, 2014,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-014-4068-2
Key Words Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
smoking, innate and adaptive immunity, airway infections,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease manifested by significantly impaired airflow, afflicts ~14.2 million cases in the United States alone with an estimated 63 million people world-wide. Although there are a number of causes, the predominant cause is excessive tobacco smoke. In fact, in China, there have been estimates of 315,000,000 people that smoke. Other less frequent causes are associated with indirect cigarette smoke, air pollutants, biomass fuels, and genetic mutations. COPD is often associated with heart disease, lung cancer, osteoporosis and conditions can worsen in patients with sudden falls. COPD also affects both innate and adaptive immune processes. Cigarette smoke increases the expression of matrix metalloproteases and proinflammatory chemokines and increases lung titers of natural killer cells and neutrophils. Yet, neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by the phagocytic respiratory burst and phagocytosis is impaired by nicotine. In contrast to innate immunity in COPD, dendritic cells represent leukocytes recruited to the lung that link the innate immune responses to adaptive immune responses by activating naïve T cells through antigen presentation. The autoimmune process that is also a significant part of inflammation associated with COPD. Moreover, coupled with restricted FEV1 values, are the prevalence of patients with single or multiple infections by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Finally, we focus on one of the more problematic infectious agents, the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specifically, we delve into the development of highly problematic biofilm infections that are highly refractory to conventional antibiotic therapies in COPD. We offer a nonconventional, biocidal treatment that may be effective for COPD airway infections as well as with combinations of current antibiotic regimens for more effective treatment outcomes and relief for patients with COPD.