Title Genetic diversity and population structure of the amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera associated with Baijiu fermentation in China
Author Ju-Wei Wang1,2, Pei-Jie Han1, Da-Yong Han1,2, Sen Zhou3, Kuan Li1, Peng-Yu He1,2, Pan Zhen4, Hui-Xin Yu4, Zhen-Rong Liang5, Xue-Wei Wang1, and Feng-Yan Bai1,2*
Address 1State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China, 2College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China, 3Niulanshan Distillery, Shunxin Agriculture Co. Ltd., Beijing 101301, P. R. China, 4ShanxiFenjiu Co. Ltd., Fenyang, Shanxi 032205, P. R. China , 5Tianlongquan Distillery Co. Ltd., Hechi, Guangxi 546400, P. R. China
Bibliography Journal of Microbiology, 59(8),753–762, 2021,
DOI 10.1007/s12275-021-1115-7
Key Words Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, genetic diversity, population structure, Baijiu
Abstract The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera is a predominant species in starters and the early fermentation stage of Chinese liquor (Baijiu). However, the genetic diversity of the species remains largely unknown. Here we sequenced the genomes of 97 S. fibuligera strains from different Chinese Baijiu companies. The genetic diversity and population structure of the strains were analyzed based on 1,133 orthologous genes and the whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four main lineages were recognized. One lineage contains 60 Chinese strains which are exclusively homozygous with relatively small genome sizes (18.55–18.72 Mb) and low sequence diversity. The strains clustered in the other three lineages are heterozygous with larger genomes (21.85–23.72 Mb) and higher sequence diversity. The genomes of the homozygous strains showed nearly 100% coverage with the genome of the reference strain KPH12 and the sub-genome A of the hybrid strain KJJ81 at the above 98% sequence identity level. The genomes of the heterozygous strains showed nearly 80% coverage with both the sub-genome A and the whole genome of KJJ81, suggesting that the Chinese heterozygous strains are also hybrids with nearly 20% genomes from an unidentified source. Eighty-three genes were found to show significant copy number variation between different lineages. However, remarkable lineage specific variations in glucoamylase and α-amylase activities and growth profiles in different carbon sources and under different environmental conditions were not observed, though strains exhibiting relatively high glucoamylase activity were mainly found from the homozygous lineage.